Net migration is simply explained as the number of immigrants minus the number of emigrants over a period, divided by the person-years lived by the population of the receiving country over that period. This number is expressed as the net number of migrants per 1,000 populations.

While the United States is agreeably the most popular destination for Canadians living abroad, reports have it that the current net migration rate between both countries in 2023 is 6.188 per 1000 population, a 1.48% decline from 2021.

Note that after the United States, the United Kingdom is ranked next as being the next place with the largest population of Canadians (108,000), followed by Australia (58,000), France (28,000), and Italy (26,000).

Also have it in mind that the United States accounts for more than 60 percent of all emigrants from Canada and the most notable pathways to permanent residence, also referred to as obtaining a green card, are via employment or family reunification.

Statistics have also shown that Canadian immigrants in the country are more likely to be highly educated when compared to the U.S.A. Canadian Immigrants are also more likely to be older and less likely to partake in the civilian labor force.

When it comes to those who work, a greater proportion is employed in management, business, science, and arts occupations. Have it in mind that today’s immigrants between both countries include students, highly educated professionals, family migrants, and retirees wishing to live in warmer or colder climates – as the case can be.

Canadian students are also renowned as the fifth-largest group among the 1 million international students attending U.S. colleges and universities, and Canadians obtained the third-largest number of employer-sponsored H-1B temporary visas in fiscal year (FY) 2020.

Factors That Have Bolstered Migration and Relationship Between the US and Canada

Some factors have helped to solidify the relationship between both countries. These factors have also helped to encourage migration between US and Canada. They include;

  1. United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement

The United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) came into effect on July 1, 2020, and replaced NAFTA as the free trade agreement for North America.

The sole aim of this arrangement is to generate job opportunities, encourage worker protections, bolster agricultural trade, produce new investments in very critical manufacturing industries, protect intellectual property rights, create realistic labor and environmental standards, and grow and extend digital trade protections.

Note that the United States and Canada enjoy some of the world’s most comprehensive trading relationships, known to cater to millions of jobs in each country. Reports have it that both countries traded goods and services worth $615 billion (USD) in 2020.

Canada and the United States remain each other’s biggest export markets, and Canada is well noted as the number one export market for more than 30 U.S. states. Also, note that Canada is the single largest foreign supplier of energy to the United States. Both countries operate an integrated electricity grid under jointly developed reliability standards.

  1. Roadmap for a Renewed U.S.-Canada Partnership

The February 23, 2021 Roadmap for a Renewed U.S.-Canada Partnership extensively describes the level of the relationship between both countries. For decades, the US and Canada have developed a partnership on climate change, advanced global health security, encouraged cooperation on defense and security, and also shown a shared commitment to diversity, equity, and justice.

They have also worked closely together on numerous levels including aligning in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic and how best to work towards a precise and comprehensive economic recovery.

Both countries are still working together towards sustainable and inclusive economic recovery in a way that effectively deals with the disproportionate impacts on women, youth, underrepresented groups, and indigenous peoples.

Seeing the need to build back better, both countries intend to still work through new and existing strategies and initiatives to hasten the economic recovery of small and medium-sized enterprises, corporate on vital minerals and strengthen supply chain security.

  1. Border and International Security

Aside from being a member of NATO, both countries work in partnership at, within, and beyond their respective borders to bolster security and economic competitiveness, and to help hasten the legitimate movement of people, goods, and services between the two countries.

According to reports, these efforts include partnering along four lines of effort: addressing threats early; facilitating lawful trade and travel; enhancing law enforcement collaboration; and promoting resilience, including critical infrastructure and cyber security.

Also, note that both see the need to secure more convenient travel through trusted traveler programs including their joint NEXUS program with more than 1.8 million members. In addition, they have an agreement that lets them exchange information on visa and immigration applicants and travelers crossing their shared land border, and this helps to sustain the integrity of the immigration systems of both countries.

  1. Education Exchange

Have it in mind that both countries share are equally invested in their support of Fulbright Canada. This Fulbright program is a mutual residential exchange that offers enviable opportunities to well to do American and Canadian students, scholars, and independent researchers to study, lecture, and/or conduct research in the other country.

The Fulbright Arctic Initiative was developed to support scholars, researchers, and professionals from Arctic Council member countries to carry out conjunct research on public policy questions about the unique issues of the Arctic region.

Reports have it that Canada participates in the 100,000 Strong in the Americas initiative, which strives to bolster student mobility between the United States and the countries of the Western Hemisphere.

In 2020, Canada was noted as the fifth-biggest source of foreign students in the United States, with over 25,000 Canadian students at U.S. higher education institutions. Also within the same period, the United States was noted as the sixth biggest source of foreign students in Canada with approximately 15,000 students.

  1. Preclearance Operations

Note that the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) carried out preclearance operations at eight airports in Canada, and this ensures that air Travelers can easily and smoothly complete immigration, customs, and agriculture procedures before boarding their flights to the United States.

Note that the 2015 Agreement on Land, Rail, Marine, and Air Transport Preclearance between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Canada that came into effect in August 2019, notes the legal framework required for each country’s preclearance officers to conduct security, facilitation, and inspection processes in the other country.


Just as was noted above, Canada and the United States remain each other’s biggest export markets. Building on their well-documented history and geography, both countries work closely together on many different levels including aligning in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic, an all-embracing and sturdy economic recovery, the global climate challenge, border and national security, global affairs, the opioid crisis, environmental protection, and free trade.